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Africa on the Move. Publisher: [Washington, D. DDC classification: Average rating: 0. Log in to your account to post a comment. Export Cancel. Share Facebook. The authors acknowledge the valuable support, input, and comments provided by a number of colleagues at the International Monetary Fund IMF and, in particular, its African Department.source
Assessing the Competitiveness in Mozambique
They are also grateful to Messrs. They would also like to thank Eteri Kvintradze and Nienke Oomes. Larissa Leony provided research assistance. The team has also enjoyed close collaboration with the representatives of the international community, and an exchange of views with the representatives of civil society.
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This book would not have been possible without the fruitful and open discussions with the Mozambican authorities. Helena Taipo; the Minister of Energy, Mr. Ernesto Gouveia Gove. We would also like to thank the staff of the Ministry of Finance, in particular the Director of the Treasury, Mr. Waldemar de Sousa and Mr. The Mozambican team would like to extend its warmest thanks to the Mozambican authorities for their hospitality and openness in discussing the many challenges facing their beautiful country.
The opinions expressed herein, as well as any errors, are the sole responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Mozambican authorities, the Executive Directors of the IMF, or other members of the IMF staff. J ean A. Mozambique, a post-conflict coastal country see map endowed with vast natural resources, is one of the few economic success stories in sub-Saharan Africa.
It has staged a dramatic recovery from the ravages of civil war and, with the help of large and sustained aid inflows, achieved impressive and broad-based economic growth that is increasingly resilient to natural disasters, and deep and equitable poverty reduction. The role of donors, including the International Monetary Fund IMF and the World Bank, was instrumental in promoting aid effectiveness through well-coordinated efforts.
Such coordination has evolved into an institutional setup that is often praised internationally as a best practice. On the political side, Mozambique was able to successfully bring about reconciliation, and it solidified its nascent democracy through elections that were seen as generally open and fair by the international community.
Mozambique is one of the few sub-Saharan African countries that appears well placed to achieve the key United Nations Millennium Development Goal MDG of halving the poverty rate by This book analyzes the lessons for sub-Saharan Africa from the experience of Mozambique. It focuses on post-stabilization economics, including the need to choose the appropriate macroeconomic policy mix in the face of scaled-up foreign aid and a surge in revenues from natural resources.
The book also discusses possible ways to respond to the challenges ahead, including how to get on the path to long-term sustainability and access to international capital markets while further reducing poverty. The lessons and challenges described in the book are likely to be of interest to policymakers, academicians, civil society, and the general public in sub-Saharan Africa and low-income countries elsewhere.
Most of the chapters offer summaries of the recent literature on their respective topics. In addition to identifying the challenges ahead, which is likely to be relevant to many sub-Saharan African countries that are in the midst of growth acceleration, the chapter draws lessons from the experience of Mozambique for the rest of sub-Saharan Africa and the international community.
At the micro level, average earnings per worker on smallholder farms increased by about 4 percent per year, which accounted for three-fourths of the decline in the poverty headcount. Meanwhile, growth in the higher-productivity industry and service sectors attracted workers away from the low-productivity agriculture sector. These advances were achieved through a combination of crop diversification and more extensive land use, which increased crop incomes including from crops grown for household subsistence , and diversification into nonfarm enterprises, such as manufacturing firms based on natural resources for example, charcoal or agricultural products, and services.
Private investment in agriculture increased demand for wage labor, which supplemented smallholder incomes. Donor-financed government spending helped bring public services closer to the population, and school enrollment rates shot up. Rural households with better market access thanks to new or better maintained roads and other infrastructure had a higher rate of diversification and larger incomes from nonfarm enterprises.
Chapter 2 offers key lessons for other sub-Saharan African countries.
First, it is important to create an enabling investment climate for private investment in smallholder agriculture that includes building market infrastructure, improving access to land, and encouraging contract grower schemes that bring new technology. Second, the development of the commercial farm sector can create wage labor opportunities that provide rural households with a source of cash income.
Third, it is important to support the growth of the microbusiness sector very small family businesses and the development of supporting institutions, such as microcredit institutions, cooperatives, and associations.
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Chapter 3 , after a brief survey of the literature on sustained growth, considers the challenges and prospects for maintaining strong and sustainable rates of economic growth over the long term in Mozambique. The discussion is based on a detailed historical growth accounting analysis and a forward-looking macroeconomic projections model. In each case, it is found that high-quality growth relies on contributions from all major aggregate growth drivers—for physical investment to translate effectively into growth, it must be accompanied by continuous improvements in human capital and productivity.
Thus, assuming continued access to concessionary external finance to support investment priorities, the key growth challenge identified for Mozambique will be to strengthen productivity via technological catch-up and the implementation of a second generation of reforms. The chapter concludes with a few important lessons. First, private sector investment must be stimulated via public investment in infrastructure and a strong government commitment to a stable macroeconomic environment.
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Second, countries with significant aid inflows need to manage them strategically to avoid unwanted macroeconomic side effects such as Dutch disease and to ensure that their application is aligned with domestic priorities. Third, investment in education is a vital component of a growth-conducive public policy stance.